PLANNING OF CIBOLANG HOT SPRING TOURISM AREA TO INCREAS COMMUNITY PROSPERITY AND ECOSYSTEM
Rido1 Master Student, Landscape Architecture Department, Bandung Institute of Technology
Aprillia2 Master Student, Landscape Architecture Department, Bandung Institute of Technology
E-mail of contact person: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cibolang is an area that is administratively located in Banjarsari Village, Pangalengan sub-district. Currently the land use are dominated by plantation. In this area, there are hot springs that are used by the local community, which is the upstream region of Cilaki watershed area. However, most of the water also entered into Cileunca utilized as power plants, the source of drinking water and recreation facilities for Bandung Society. Farming activities in this area was transformed into a problem that is disturbing quality of water. There is also a potential hot water spring and tea plantations which will be transformed onto coffee plantations. For that reason, it is necessary to plan Cibolang Region that can accommodate upstream agricultural activities, in general, without having to lower their ecological functions as well as to empower local communities in the tourism sector and in an effort to preserve the environment.
This plan outlines seven main aspects, namely: 1) Eco Village, 2) Local Wisdom, 3) Green Agriculture, 4) Green Infrastructure, 5) Sustainable Water Management, 6) Ecotourism, 7) Wild Ecosystem. With seven aspects of this plan is expected to be able to achieve the main goal of improving the welfare of society and preserving the environment. The analysis used is the spatial analysis (including land use, land elevation, hydrology, vegetation cover, slope of the land and water quality), which is then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to determine the existing problems and find alternative solutions.
From the analysis results obtained three types of land use at the site, which is a body of water (25%), agriculture (65%) and building area (10%). Building area had the smallest portion since the rule of the landowners (PTPN VIII) which is very restrict to land is used as a building area in order to improve and maintain the quantity of the plantation. Obviously, this is very beneficial in maintaining the quality of the ecological footprint is maintained. Overall, the altitude at the site ranges between 1470 - 1530 meters above sea level. With the height of the outline of this site belong to the category of the plateau that has all the typical late flora and fauna of its own. For the selection of plant species endemic plants should be used in accordance with the height of the tread.
Keywords: hot spring, prosperity, ecology
Cibolang is an area that is administratively located in Banjarsari Village, Pangalengan sub-district. Currently, the land use are dominated by plantation, especially tea plantation by PTP Nusantara VIII. In this area, there are hot springs that are used by the local community which is the upstream region of Cilaki that included in Cilaki Watershed area which empties into the Indian Ocean. However, most of the water also entered into Cileunca’s Lake, utilized as power plants, the source of drinking water and recreation facilities for some community in Bandung. However, farming activities in this area was transformed into a problem that is quite disturbing quality of river water. Besides these problems, there is also a potential in this area, there are hot water spring and tea plantations which will be transformed onto coffee plantations. For that reason, it is necessary to make a plan of Cibolang Region into a model area that can accommodate upstream agricultural activities in general without having to lower their ecological functions as well as to empower local communities in the tourism sector and in an effort to preserve the environment.
The objective of this study is as follows:
1. Reforming the landscape at site ecologically
2. Minimize the impact of livestock feces on the river ecology
3. Create a program to improve the prosperity of the community
The results from this study expected to be taken into consideration for management and related parties. Moreover, it can be a reference in the site planning for the construction of a mountains tourist area.
This study used spatial analysis (including land use, land elevation, hydrology, vegetation cover, slope of the land and water quality), which is then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to determine the existing problems and find alternative solutions.
Place and Time of Study
This research was conducted at the Cibolang hot spring area, Pangalengan, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The study was conducted in February and June 2015.
Limitation and Research Approach
Research be limited on the condition of the landscape in general, livestock feces effect on the ecology of the river, and ecological educational attraction opportunities at the site which is expected to improve the prosperity of the community.
1. Preparation Stage
At this stage study objective was setting, making the proposed study and determination of the location. Additionally, preparation activities before site survey also cariied out, such as application to research, make a checlists of social and biophysical data, list of location, list of maps, a list of required equipment, and implementation guidelines and drafting survey schedule.
2. Survey Stage
Implementation of the survey conducted at the site visually and physical measurements. This activity is intended to inventory physical, biophysical, and social at site. While to know the perceptions and preferences of the user about landscape interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted to community and visitors. While secondary data obtained from the manager's office, the local government offices and from literature searches.
3. Analysis and Synthesis Stage
At this stage, data were selected, data compiled systematically in the form of tables, charts, graphics, and maps, which are then carried out the assessment and analysis of synthesis. Secondary and primary data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to find out the existing problems then discovered alternatives solutions.
4. Formulation of Recommendations Stage
Preparation of planning recommendations made by the process of synthesis analysis of existing data, both primary and secondary. Preparation of recommendations to consider the general character of the existing landscape. Planning recommendations prepared for consideration by the parties concerned.
3. Result and Discussion
According Eckbo  the landscape is space around humans includes everything that can be seen and felt. According Hubbard and Kimball (1917) in Laurie , landscape architecture is art which focuses on the function of creation and the preservation of the beauty of the environment around human habitate and the wider scope of nature. Additionally associated with increased comfort, convenience and health of the population. Therefore landscape planning should be devoted to improve the prosperity of the community.
According Gagne and Briggs (1979) in Hasbullah  said that the planning of teaching should be based on knowledge of how individuals learn, in order to know what conditions should be laid. Hasbullah  adding, to increasing the situation to more favorable to learning, the nature and quality interaction of learning is very important. Cooperative structure compared to the structure of competition and the efforts of individual were more supported the communication between participant. From this definition, Attraction education planning in tourism areas should be made in such a way, particularly to improve the quality of interaction between the participants and the object (nature)
There are several land use at site, mostly used as a tea plantation, basically this site is tea plantation that owned by PTPN VIII (Indonesian plantation companies). Besides being used as a tea plantation, the site also used as a hot spring (water sourced from the Perhutani region), staff house, aquaculture ponds (known as empang), as well as a dairy farm who are members of Farmers Cooperation of South Bandung (KPBS). The farm is the most contributed for the river water pollution when its compared to other types of use.
With the issue of a decrease in the quality of the tea plantation, most of the tea plantation area at the site is planned to be replaced with coffee commodity, considering the upward trend in the coffee market in the world and in Indonesia particularly.
The waste from farms and plantations is considered very potential to be a model of integrated farming, whose main objective to maintain the ecosystem in general, as well as maintaining water quality particularly, considering there are springs on this site which become the row material of drinking water for some community in Bandung. Besides integrated farming system, there are things that must be consider, that is tourism potential that implicate to improve prosperity of local communities
Types of Soil
Dominated by the andosol with a red color,brown until yellowish. The pH between 4.5-6.5 is acidic to slightly acidic. Crumb Texture with crumbly consistency.
Located at an altitude of 1500-1600 meters above sea level .
Total Population : 5.771 people
Male : 2.891 people
Female : 2.880 people
Population Density : 261 per KM²
Spacious : 34,19 Ha
Longitude coordinates : 107°36'35.47" EL - 107°37'8.76" EL
Latitude coordinates : 7°14'23.49" SL - 7°13'53.13" SL
North : Wahyang Mountain
West : Malabar tea plantation
South : Malabar tea plantation
East : Malabar tea plantation
Rainfall : 2.350 mm/year
Temperature : 18-23 °C
Picture 1. Location and Existing Condition
Cibolang can be achieved through by two main access, there are:
1. From the Situ Cisanti approximately within 12.5 Km
2. From the Pangalengan Terminal approximately within 10.9 Km
Overall access to Cibolang quite good and easily accessible. But at some point the state of the road is rather broken and perforated, this is because this road is frequently traveled by large trucks carrying tea. Visibility will also be greatly reduced if the fog had gone down (picture 1).
Pangalengan region, with a landscape that is at an altitude above 1,500 meters above sea level, has an endemic vegetation typical of the highlands of West Java such as Altingia excelsa (Rasamala), Castanopsis javanica (Saninten), Magnolia mackiottii (Baros), Toona sinensis (Suren), and Colocasia esculent (Talas Bolang) .
According to the people who have lived since birth in Cibolang, Cibolang name is taken from the plant Talas Bolang formerly numerous in this area, grow along the stream. Cibolang word itself consists of two words "Ci" and "Bolang". The word “Ci” is derived from the word “Cai” (Sundanese language) which means water. Whereas “Bolang” taken from plants “Talas Bolang”. So Cibolang means area or place that has a lot of Talas Bolang plants overgrown along the river. Talas Bolang normally not consumed, because it tasted bad and itchy, but it can be used for fish food.
Pangalengan region has a diversity of fauna, ranging from amphibians, birds and small mammals. Such as Talco moluccensis (Alap-alap sapi bird), Halcyon smynensis (Cekaka belukar bird), Aethopyga eximia (Madu gunung bird), Tupai javanica (squirrel), Macaca fascicularis (Long-tailed macaque) and Rhacophorus javanica (Javanese tree frog) .
Picture 2. Existing water flow scheme
From the water flow scheme as above, the problem that arises is leaking water flow from livestock waste storage into the fish pond. This is expected because volume of storage pool that is not sufficient anymore to accommodate existing waste, because the rate of waste production very quickly when compared with the rate of decomposing organisms. Therefore, farmers intentionally create a channel from the livestock waste storage into the river. Of course this can degrade the water quality of the river (picture 2).
Analysis and Syntesis
The analysis was performed with software tools AutoCAD Land Desktop 2009 using a base elevation data taken at the site with the GPS Garmin 62 SC. Data obtained steepness 0-3% covered 21% area, steepness 3-8% covered 48% area, steepness 8-15% covered 17% area, steepness 15-30% covered 12% area, steepness 30-45% covered 1% area, and steepness >45% covered 1% area. It is necessary for the protection of land on a steep area (picture 3).
Analysis were performed with software tools AutoCAD Land Desktop 2009 using a base elevation data taken at the site with the GPS Garmin 62 SC. Overall, the altitude at the site ranges 1470 - 1530 masl. With the height of the outline of this site belong to the category plateau which has all the typical late flora and fauna of its own. Therefore type of plants that should be used is an endemic plant that is in accordance with the height of the site (picture 4).
Picture 3. Analysis of slope Picture 4. Analysis of land elevation
Analyses were performed with AutoCAD 2012 software tools in a way to digitized maps satellite images from Google Maps 2014. From the analysis results obtained three types of land use at the site, as water bodies (25%), plantation (65%) and build area (10%). Build area had the smallest portion since the rule of the land owners (PTPN VIII) which is very limiting land used as build area in order to enhance and maintain the quantity plantation crops. Of course this is very beneficial in maintaining the ecological quality of the site is maintained (picture 5).
Analyses were performed with AutoCAD 2012 software tools in a way to digitized maps satellite images from Google Maps 2014. From the analysis results obtained as much 80% of the total footprint is a kind of medium bush vegetation with (tea). While land covered canopy of tall trees only 1,5%. It means that the addition of tall trees on the site must be done in order to minimize surface runoff, protect the slopes of landslide hazards, and to improve the micro-climate (picture 6).
Picture 5. Analysis of land use Picture 6. Analysis of plant cover
With vast body of water that reaches 25% of the total area of the tread, This site has the potential as a water catchment area. But what to observe is the rate of flow of the surface relatively quickly due to the influence of the contour of the land and vegetation cover. This of course can increase the potential for erosion and landslides. It is necessary for the proper planting plan, in order to minimize runoff, especially in steep areas (picture 7).
Analysis conducted by visually and aroma. Divided into 3 categories:
1. Water Not Polluted
· Translucent colors
· Not flavorful
2. Water a Bit Polluted
· A bit Muddy color
· Not flavorful
3. Water Polluted
· Muddy color
· Smell bad
Bio-engineering system is needed to improve the existing water quality in order to keep it nice to downstream (picture 8).
Picture 7. Analysis of hydrologi Picture 8. Analysis of water quality
This plan outlines seven main aspects, namely: 1) Eco Village, 2) Local Wisdom, 3) Green Agriculture, 4) Green Infrastructure, 5) Sustainable Water Management, 6) Ecotourism, 7) Wild Ecosystem. With seven aspects of this plan is expected to be able to achieve the main goal of improving the welfare of society and preserving the environment.
1. Eco Village
Creating sustainable village life with aspects of the balance between human and nature
· To design settlement and farming in harmony with nature
· Waste management
· Community empowerment
· Encouraging local knowledge as part of daily life
· Conservation and replanting of vegetation endemic
2. Local wisdom
Lifting Sundanese Landscape on Pangalengan region and Kertasari
· To apply Sundanese typology: Luhur, Tengah and Handap into the zoning plan based on land use
o Luhur - Tengah : enforce tree
o Tengah - Handap : settlements-rice farming
o Spring as the center of life
3. Green agriculture
Creating agricultural land that can conserve the soil, water and endemic species in the region.
· To develop organic farming
· Integrating conventional farms with environmentally friendly farming techniques
· Agriculture and ranch waste management
· Encouraging conservation strategy: soil, water and vegetation
· Noting the networking aspect of habitats and ecological processes
4. Green Infrastructure
Designing tourism landscape with the implementation of sustainable green infrastructure
· Designing landscape infrastructure that does not interfere with the natural cycles
· Landscape design prevents sedimentation
· Using green infrastructure and facilitate the management of tourism systems
Tourism that build awareness and respect for the environment and culture
· Educating tourists about the importance of conservation
· Bringing economic benefits to the local community
· Tourism that does not exceed the capacity of local social and environmental
6. Sustainable Water Management
Designing landscapes which can maintain the quality of water in the upstream to be used optimally to downstream
· Strengthen the function of the landscape that can maintain the quality of water
· Designing a water body region ecologically
· Improving the connectivity of water bodies
· To develop biohydro-engineering technology
7. Wild Ecosystem
Designing a landscape habitat to conserve flora and fauna endemic
· Strengthen the function of the landscape that support the movement of animals
· Develop wildlife habitat learning center
· Developing a system of interpretation at the site
Picture 9. Formulation of the problem
Picture 10. The concept of energy cycle
Landscape planning in mountain areas, in which there are micro-scale farms, should consider how the management of livestock waste in order not to disrupt the river ecosystem. If this is accomplished, it can maintain water quality which has implications for communities properity. This planning also has the potential to become an educational attraction for the public, so that people are aware of the importance and how to keep preservation of ecosystems by looking directly.
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 Laurie, M. 1975. An Introduction To Landscape Architecture. American Elsevier Publishing Co. Ltd. New York.
 Hasbullah. 2008. Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Pendidikan. Edisi Revisi. PT. Rajagrafindo Persada. Jakarta (in Indonesian).
 Suparman, Sarip. 2014. Potensi Desa dan Kelurahan Banjarsari. Banjarsari Village. Bandung (in Indonesian).
 Anonim. 2012. Laporan Keberlanjutan 2012: Prestasi Untuk Keberlanjutan. Star Energy Geothermal (Wahyang Windu) LTD, Pertamina Geothermal Energy (in Indonesian).